Environmental Influences on Growth and Defence Responses of the Invasive Shrub, Lonicera maackii, to Simulated and Real Herbivory in the Juvenile Stage

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Tolerance and defence against herbivory are among the many mechanisms attributed to the success of invasive plants in their novel ranges. Because tolerance and defence against herbivory differ with the ontogeny of a plant, the effects of herbivore damage on plant fitness vary with ontogenetic stage and are compounded throughout a plant's lifetime. Environmental stresses such as light and nutrient limitations can further influence the response of the plant. Much is known about the response of plants in the seedling and reproductive adult stages, but less attention has been given to the pre-reproductive juvenile stage.