Homosexuality has become a popular research topic in a variety of professional fields, and over the last decade has become a priority for the military. Since the implementation of the law repealing Don't Ask Don't Tell (DADT) researchers have questioned what effects repealing this law has had on the military as a whole. Particular attention has been spent on studying the attitudes and stereotypes about homosexuals after DADT was repealed. However, there is a lack of research examining how marriage equality affects society's stereotypes about homosexuals serving in the United States military.
It was hypothesized that participants that have personal contact (friends or family members) with lesbian, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) individuals will be less likely to hold negative stereotypes about LGBT serving in the armed forces than those participants who don't have personal contact (friends or family members) with LGBT individuals. The purpose of this research is threefold: 1) reduce discrimination of homosexuals serving in the military 2) help to improve the quality of life for homosexuals serving in the armed forces and 3) improve society by increasing tolerance. Current literature does not provide us with a clear and concise picture of how marriage equality impacts military stereotypes of homosexuals. This study utilized survey-sampling methods in an attempt to understand how opinions about marriage equality affect military stereotypes of gays and lesbians. The results supported the main hypothesis. Participants who had personal contact (friends or family members) with LGBT individuals were in fact less likely to hold negative stereotypes about LGBT serving in the armed forces than those participants who did not have personal contact (friends or family members) with LGBT individuals. One can conclude that marriage equality has helped to reduce society's negative stereotypes about homosexuals serving in the U.S. military.
Jaree Naqvi, Scott Seider, Jason Miller, Cole Budinsky, and Amol Soin
Post Herpetic Neuralgia (PHN) is a painful condition that occurs after reactivation of the dormant Herpes Zoster Virus.Typically PHN presents with a unilateral rash affecting a single dermatome which is accompanied by burning, irritation, and hypersensitivity for >3 months.Current treatment includes anticonvulsants, tricyclic antidepressants, narcotic/nonnarcotic painkillers, and topical lidocaine.
We propose the utilization of a superconcentrated transdermal patch of capsaicin called Qutenza 8%, which is 300 times more potent than current OTC capsaicin. The treatment protocol using Qutenza to treat refractory PHN proposes a novel approach to the treatment of this condition.
Capsaicin is commonly known as the active chemical in peppers which is responsible for their spiciness and the pain and irritation associated with ingesting them. The mechanism of action of capsaicin is believed to be release of neurotransmitters upon binding to capsaicin nociceptors, mainly TRPV1. At large doses, capsaicin causes depletion of neurotransmitters and can ultimately lead to nerve fiber denervation. Once the neuron is damaged or depleted of neurotransmitters, pain perception is notably diminished for a period of time thereby effectively providing relief
Revathy Venkataramanan, Utkarshani Jaimini, Amit Sheth, Joon K. Shim, Priti Parikh, and Dene S. Berman
The rate of obesity is on the rise reaching epidemic proportions. According to American Society for Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery (ASMBS), 500 million people all over the world are obese. The data from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention(CDC) shows that more than 36% of adults in the United States have obesity. According to World Health Organization (WHO), 65% of the world’s population lives in countries where the occurrence of death due to overweight and obesity is higher than being underweight. It is well established that weight loss surgery can play a significant role in reducing, or even eliminating medical problems associated with obesity. Weight recidivism is one of the biggest challenges following bariatric surgery. As many as 50% of patients may regain a small amount of weight two years or more following their bariatric surgery. A lifetime commitment to diet and behavior modifications after surgery are essential for success after undergoing surgery.
In this project, computer scientists working at Kno.e.sis, an Ohio Center of Excellence in BioHealth Innovation, are collaborating with a bariatric surgeon and a psychologist to bolster weight loss surgery patients for appropriate postsurgical progress. In our mobile personalized digital health solution, we use an Android application coupled with sensors to monitor patient’s compliance with post-surgery progress and motivate patients to have proper follow-ups. The sensors include a wireless weighing machine that automatically sends data to the cloud, activity and sleep monitoring wristband which also measures heart rate, water bottle sensor and pill bottle sensor which prompts the patient for proper intake of water and vitamin pills. Additionally, the android app with its simple questionnaire helps in monitoring the patient’s diet and emotional well-being.
One of the key challenges for the surgeon is to continuously monitor the patient to identify the deviations from recommended postsurgical guidelines. We aid bariatric surgeons to identify noncompliance with direction by providing aggregated data of all the primary parameters to be monitored. We also monitor patient’s mental health, following diet and sleep cycle. Thus, a joint effort with the surgeon and psychologist to track patient’s postsurgical behavior differentiates our approach from others and contributes to improved outcomes for bariatric surgery patients.
College tuitions rise at disparate rates with starting salaries and inflation, causing student debt to weigh on social work graduates. Data was collected from 701 social workers in an NASW - Ohio Chapter survey to investigate this disparity and its consequences. The purpose of this study was to analyze the qualitative data set, 174 written comments, for themes and perceptions. The following themes, echoed in current research on the topics of social work salary and student debt burden, were identified: unmanageable debt and financial burden, varying lengths of time and repayment methods, social workers feeling undervalued and underpaid, loan forgiveness programs, and the need for greater advocacy for social workers’ educational debt relief. The demand for social work is projected to grow; this research is important to help maintain the needed workforce so social workers do not leave the profession to pursue a living wage, or choose another path entirely.
Scott J. Duberstein, Daniel Asamoah, Derek Doran, and Shu Z. Schiller
As social media continues to become an incredible mode of communication in daily life dealing with the exchange of information, these systems provide authors a platform where they can share their thoughts, feelings, and experiences about a number of topics. Harnessing the information expressed publicly through these modes can be incredibly powerful: public perceptions, signals, and data about a variety of specific topics could be extracted and studied from these posts. However, there is a common trade-off in collecting information about a topic from social media: the more specific the topic, generally, the more challenging it is to extract meaningful information. This is because, at first glance, social media posts are simply too noisy: authors post topics that are forced to inject meaning in a short length (140 characters on Twitter). This work presents a nontrivial methodology to overcome this problem. It uses state-of-the-art programming and data storage technologies, stop-word dictionaries, author filters and Twitter bot detectors. Short of evaluating the authenticity of the collected tweets, which will be done in future work through Amazon Mechanical Turk evaluators, we demonstrate how our methodology extracts specific, meaningful tweets about topics related to chronic diseases and medication.
Evaluation of a Brief Marriage Intervention for Internal Behavioral Health Consultants in Military Primary Care
Ashley L. Evans, Jeffrey A. Cigrang, Tatiana D. Grey, James V. Cordova, Elizabeth Najera, Rosalyn S. Pace, Abby D. Fields, Michael A. Glotfelter, Jennifer A. Mitchell, and JoLyn Tatum
Military couples face significant challenges to their relationships including demanding schedules, multiple deployments, and frequent moves. Despite the high costs of chronic marital distress, very few military (or civilian) couples seek marriage therapy. The military services and the VA system have implemented collaborative care models in primary care where internal behavioral health consultants are integrated into primary care. Integrated primary care can reduce the stigma of behavioral health services and may increase the odds that couples would seek help earlier. There are no established couple interventions designed for use in primary care. The purpose of this presentation is to describe a program of research focused on adapting and validating The Marriage Checkup (MC) for use in an integrated primary care clinic.
Zachary B. Ewing and Eric A. Fossum
Poly(arylene ether)s, PAEs
• High performance engineering thermoplastic materials
• Excellent mechanical properties and thermal stability
• Resistant to hydrolysis and oxidation
• Many prepared via nucleophilic aromatic substitution (NAS)
• Electron withdrawing groups (EWG) typically in para positions
• PAEs can also be synthesized with an EWG in the meta positions, creating easily functionalized systems, with no change in the backbone
Muhammad S. Hamdan and Caroline G. L. Cao
Laparoscopic surgery is a modern surgical technique in which surgeons insert tools through small incisions in the abdomen to perform a surgical procedure.
D. Amal Mirando, Michael D. Higgins, Sonya Sokhey, Matthew Larson, and Douglas T. Petkie
Nondestructive imaging is a method of examining a material without direct contact that additionally does not alter the properties of the material. The terahertz imaging system currently in development uses the principle of interferometry (a Michelson Interferometer) such that frequency modulated terahertz signals are split and directed to the object under study and a reference mirror; then the detector will acquire the intensity of the combined reflected signals that contains information about the objects in the path of the beam.
Emily N. Sandt and Adrienne L. Traxler
The goal of this research was to compare different models of network influence for students. Two research questions were composed: 1. How do common centrality measures compare when ranking students' network influence? 2. Do centrality values of non-traditional students show different trend than traditional students?
Katherine E. Fahy, James B. Lucot, Hayo Castrop, and Mauricio Di Fulvio
Na-K-2Cl cotransporter 2A (NKCC2A), also known as the bumetanide-sensitive cotransporter 1 (BSC1), transports Na+, K+ and Cl- with a stoichiometry of 1:1:2. NKCC2A is considered a kidney specific cotransporter. It is abundantly expressed in apical membrane of the tubular cells in the thick ascending limb of the loop of Henle (TALH) and in the macula densa. However, NKCC2 has also been found at low levels in different cells, including insulin-secreting ones. This secondary active transporter uses the energy stored in the electrochemical gradients of Na and K maintained by the Na/K-ATPase located on the basolateral membrane of the TALH. The gene encoding NKCC2 is Slc12a1, solute carrier family 12 member 1 located on chromosome 2. Mice lacking NKCC2A (NKCC2A-KO) exhibit mild kidney dysfunction. In this lab it was noted that NKCC2A-KO mice express atypical muscle movements, slight tremors and subtle muscle dyscontrol, endure exceptionally well in the forced swim test and had changes in neurotransmitter levels. These observations led to the hypothesis that NKCC2A may be also found in the central nervous system (CNS).
Characterization of Calbindin Positive Interneurons within the Ventral Horn of the Mouse Spinal Cord
Taylor L. Floyd and David R. Ladle
Sensory-motor circuits in the spinal cord integrate sensory feedback from muscles and modulate locomotor behavior. Although we know how the sensory-motor system generally works, the main issue lies in identifying all neurons involved and understanding their interrelationships. Many interneurons contribute to sensory-motor circuits and have been well studied. For example, Renshaw cells (RC) are inhibitory interneurons that prevent motor neurons from over-activity. A distinguishing feature of RCs is that they are the only interneurons within the ventral-most region of the spinal cord expressing the calcium binding protein calbindin (CB). Recent studies have found other subpopulations of ventral horn interneurons outside of the RC area that express CB, but knowledge regarding the function and connectivity of these neurons is limited. We hypothesize CB expression serves a functional purpose for ventral horn interneurons and as well as identifying RCs. Here we compare known characteristics of RCs with other ventral horn interneurons that express CB. We analyze anatomical location; cellular density; expression of neurotransmitters; motor neuron and sensory afferent contacts; expression of calcium binding proteins CB, calretinin and parvalbumin; and premotor neuron identification.
Donna J. Hangen
Abstract discussing author's choice of solo flute performance, with analysis and explanation of the various pieces.
Nicholas C. Padgett, Stephanie R. Lake, Jason A. Deibel, T. Bullard, D. Latypov, J. Patel, J. Murphy, J. Bulmer, W. Tang, M. Sebastian, and Timothy J. Haugan
Terahertz radiation is invaluable in spectroscopy and imaging due to its nondestructive nature. It has become a key focus for those wishing to develop sensors capable of detecting weapons and narcotics unobtrusively and at a distance. An ultrafast pulsed (femtoseconds) laser incident on a superconducting ring causes the emission of terahertz (THz) radiation. It is theorized that the radiation is a result of the supercurrent being modulated by the breaking and recombining of Cooper pairs on the order of picoseconds, where the time scale determines the frequency of the emitted radiation. We propose to investigate the terahertz emission from Yttrium barium copper oxide (YBCO) superconducting ring arrays of various geometries. Specifically, we will investigate the dependence of the time dynamics of the terahertz radiation, the ultrafast femtosecond laser pump power dependence and time dynamics, the antenna geometry, and the efficiency of the system. The theoretical work completed thus far anticipates high power and bandwidth in the terahertz regime. Furthermore, a complete characterization of the emitted radiation will provide insight into the microscopic properties of the superconductor's supercarriers.
No Oasis in the Desert: Identification and Implications of the Food Desert around an Urban Ohio Hospital
R. J. Sontag
Montgomery County, Ohio’s diabetes prevalence outpaces the nation, and the incidence of adult obesity approaches 1/3. Access to healthy food in the impoverished neighborhood surrounding Dayton’s Good Samaritan Hospital, the site of the Family Medicine residency, is important when educating about health lifestyle. The purpose of this project was to determine whether the area was a food desert and to evaluate the implications of the label.
Suzanne Franco and Allison Mueller
There were three Ohio research efforts about Student Growth Measures (SGM) for Teacher and Principal Evaluations: 1) extended testing for previously non-‐tested subjects and grades, 2) relationship between the teacher and principal evaluation systems’ implementation plans, and 3) an empirical study of Local Education Agencies’ (LEA) year-‐end evaluation data from 2013. In 2011-‐2012 Ohio offered a 2 year mini-‐grant to LEAs agreeing to administer extended testing for Value-‐Added measures (VAM) in grades and content areas not represented in the Ohio Achievement Assessment (OAA). The mini-‐grant allowed the state to create testing pools sufficient to produce teacher-‐level VAMs. American College Testing (ACT) End of Course (EOC), Terra Nova, MAPS, and/or Star assessments were administered. The two year study of a sample of 23 funded LEAs has provided has provided findings for the local and national discussions about student growth measures and teacher/principal evaluations. At the same time Ohio completed a case study for a sample of 22 LEAs about the relationship between OTES/OPES implementation. And finally, 21 LEAs' final 2013 teacher and principal evaluation data were analyzed for general trends.
When a miscarriage occurs, it affects the entire family unit, making coping an important part of healing during this time. After miscarriage, women are at increased risk for developing mental disorders such as anxiety and depression. Miscarriage is seldom seen as a concern for the father of the lost child, and thus their feelings are often ignored. It is important for the nurse to know how to best help these men, women, and the rest of the involved family cope after miscarriage so they can move on in a healthy way. The following is a review of the literature to determine effective interventions nurses can use to help families to cope and reduce stress and anxiety after miscarriage.
Theresa Fennell, James Lucot, Samantha Spitak, Emily Smith, and Teresa Garret
Drugs currently used to prevent emesis (nausea and vomiting) target only one or a few of the pathways used by emetic stimuli to trigger the reflex. Thus, an anti-emetic drug will only be effective against some stimuli. Prior work determined that 8-OH-DPAT (DPAT, a 5-HT1A agonist) was a universally effective anti-emetic. Although DPAT prevented emesis, it also elicited an extreme anxiety response making it unsuitable for therapeutic use. Presently, there exists no universal anti-emetic drug. We tested a proprietary drug developed from DPAT, ETI-385, which successfully prevented emesis in musk shrews against chemotherapy, drug and motion stimuli. For FDA purposes, we are required to test ETI-385 in another species before taking the drug into clinical trials. Work at Epiomed Therapeutics used ETI-385 to successfully prevent emesis in cats using motion stimuli. Currently, ETI-385 is being tested in cats against a drug stimulus, Xylazine, which is a common veterinary sedative. We determined a dose response curve for ETI-385 against Xylazine over the range of 0.0225mg/kg to 0.36mg/kg. The animals received an ETI-385 pretreatment injected subcutaneously (SC) followed by an injection of Xylazine (also SC). During observation the animals were scored for symptoms of both emesis and anxiety. The dose 0.0225mg/kg was unsuccessful in preventing emesis and produced a higher symptom score than Xylazine alone, suggesting nausea. The dose 0.045mg/kg was 66.7% effective against vomiting but had an increase in symptom score while 0.09mg/kg was 83.4% effective against vomiting with a marked decrease in symptom score. At the 0.36 mg/kg dose we achieved 100% efficacy and a complete eradication of emetic symptoms. Unlike DPAT, only the highest dose produced any defensive behavior.
Jayharsh L. Panchal, Eric J. Romer, David Ellis, Tharu Fernando, and Courtney E. W. Sulentic
2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) inhibits antibody secretion and immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) expression. Our previous work has shown that a possible mechanism for inhibition of IgH expression could be inhibition of the 3’IgH regulatory region (3’IgHRR). The 3’IgHRR has four enhancer regions (hs3a; hs1,2; hs3b; hs4) which are purported to control IgH gene expression. Previously we demonstrated a sensitive inhibition by TCDD of LPS-induced 3’IgHRR activity which is correlated with an inhibition of LPS-induced hs1,2 enhancer activity; however, the hs4 enhancer showed TCDD-induced activation following the co-treatment of TCDD and LPS. Therefore, the objective of the current study was to determine if the hs1,2 enhancer mediates the inhibitory effect of TCDD on 3’IgHRR activation. We generated a CH12.LX cell line stably expressing a γ2b transgene under the regulation of the 3’IgHRR and containing loxp sites flanking either the hs3a/hs1,2 or the hs3b/hs4 enhancer pairs. Transient transfection with Cre recombinase results in recombination at the loxp sites and deletion of the appropriate enhancer pair. Cells expressing Cre recombinase were sorted and 96 clones from each parental (i.e., loxp flanking hs3a/hs1,2 or hs3b/hs4) were analyzed by PCR for successful recombination. We found 8 clones and 6 clones with successful deletion of the hs3a/hs1,2 and hs3b/hs4 respectively. Preliminary analysis showed inhibition of the hs3a/hs1,2 enhancer pair and no effect to inhibition of the hs3b/hs4 enhancer pair. These results suggest that the hs1,2 is the primary mediator of TCDD-induced 3’IgHRR inhibition and that the hs4 enhancer in combination with the hs3b enhancer is affected differently than when the hs4 is analyzed in isolation or by transient transfection. A polymorphism of the hs1,2 enhancer is correlated with autoimmune diseases like IgA nephropathy and Celiac disease. Hence modulation of hs1,2 enhancer activity by TCDD may influence the initiation or progression of these diseases. (Supported by NIEHS R01ES014676)
This poster was presented at the Wright State University Campus-Wide Celebration of Research, Scholarship and Creative Activities on April 8, 2011