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Abstract

The present study describes anthropogenic pressure in the Tolipir landscape of the lesser Himalayas. The GIS tools, questionnaire and field sampling surveys were used to estimate threats in landscape. The study was conducted in January 2013 to January 2014.The five model villages (Ali Saujal, Kanchi Kot, Khori Chana, Kahoo Kot, Noor Kot) of Tolipir landscape were selected to determine anthropogenic pressure. The study documents that Tolipir landscape has an average number of houses (350 ± 82.4), with number of individuals per house (10.8 ± 1.1) and fuel consumption per day (43.72±3.30 kg). The preferred fuel wood plant species among inhabitants of the landscape are Quercus incana, Quercus dilatata (41.2%), Pinus wallichiana (21.6%), Robinia pseudoaccacia (7.8%), Machillus odoratissima (5.9%), Olea cuspidate (3.9%), Ailanthus altissim (2.0%), Berberis lyceum (2.0%), Abies pindrow (2.0%), Machillus odoratissima (2.0%), Dodonia viscose (2.0%), Punica granatum (2.0%), Melia azaderach (2.0%), Rubus fruticosus (14.3%), Aesculus indica (13.3%), Salix acmophylla (12.3%), and Dicliptera bupleuroides (10.2%). The inhabitants of the landscape have an average owned land area (20.9 ± 4.1 kanals), with livestock (6.1 ± 6.7) and resident-feed livestock, by green fodder (61%), meadow (20.8%), forest (18.2%), cultivated fields (89.3%), and farm (8.3%) and take animal for grazing (2.8 ± 1.1) km. The results indicate the Tolipir landscape has significantly greater pressure in the form of fuel wood consumption, population, and grazing when compared to the international standard of other hilly areas. The assessments of anthropogenic pressure provide baseline information in developing conservation strategies for mountain ecosystems regionally and globally.


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