It is shown that the usual charge-balance analysis of temperature-dependent carrier-concentration data cannot distinguish between the donor and acceptor behavior of a center which is emitting carriers to a particular band, even though the statistics are different in the two cases. Other data, such as mobility or analytical results are needed to make the distinction.
Look, D. C.,
& Sizelove, J. R.
(1987). Equivalence of Donor and Acceptor Fits of Temperature-Dependent Carrier-Concentration Data. Journal of Applied Physics, 61 (4), 1650-1652.