High-energy electron irradiation in ZnO produces shallow donors at about EC-30meV. Because the production rate is much higher for Zn-face (0001) than O-face (0001̅ ) irradiation, the donor is identified as a Zn-sublattice defect, most likely the interstitial ZnI or a ZnI-related complex. The donor energy is quite close to that of the unirradiated sample, and of other samples discussed in the literature, strongly suggesting that ZnI (and not VO) is the dominant native shallow donor in ZnO. An exceptionally high displacement threshold energy (∼1.6MeV) is quantitatively explained in terms of a multiple-displacement model.
Look, D. C.,
Hemsky, J. W.,
& Sizelove, J. R.
(1999). Residual Native Shallow Donor in ZnO. Physical Review Letters, 82 (12), 2552-2555.