Document Type

Master's Culminating Experience

Publication Date



This investigation attempts to see if Card and Kreuger's retrospective findings that a significant positive relationship between higher ratios of female to male teachers and later increased earnings of workers extends to current test results of Ohio School Districts. One possible explanation for increased earnings later in life to be associated with a higher ratio of female teachers is that lack of alternative opportunities for females in the labor market before 1966 made it possible to hire more effective female teachers for a given salary. If the same conditions hold districts with higher ratios of teachers on their staff would be expected to have superior test scores.

Utilizing current Ohio School District micro data, this study measures classroom teacher gender ratios, average salary, experience, and education levels effects on student performance as measured in by composite index of 4th, 6th, 8th and 10th grade mean normal curve equivalent achievement test scores in reading, math, and language for 610 districts in 1990. Average family income in the district was used to control for differences in pupil backgrounds.

Contrary to the Card and Kruger results, an increase in female to male teachers ratio produced a statistically insignificant, negative correlation (-.02) in Ohio pupil performance. Statistically significant correlation's with composite test scores included: teacher salaries (+.38), percentage of teachers with graduate degrees (+.21), district average family income (+.56), and the squared number of classroom teachers as a proxy for school district size (-11).