Document Type


Publication Date

Spring 2023


Mainstream economists have propagated the “Human Capital” theory emphasizing the link between innate abilities of the labor force and wages earned by them to justify occupational segregation between genders and the wage gap.Proponents of this theory advanced the notion that women are less likely to invest time in building skills through education and job-related training, unlike men do, because women anticipate spending more time than men do at home performing household work. In challenging this theory, feminist economist Barbara Bergamann proposed the “Crowding” hypothesis in which she argues that there are fewer female-dominated occupations than there are male-dominated ones. This leads to crowding of women into smaller pool of occupations available to them. The surplus of female workers, relative to the demand in these female-dominated occupations drive the wages down for women.

Is Part Of

Student Papers in Local and Global Regional Economies