Publication Date


Document Type


Committee Members

Nancy Bigley (Committee Chair), Debra Mayes (Committee Member), Courtney Sulentic (Committee Member)

Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)


Macrophages are immune cells that phagocytize pathogens and act as antigen presenting cells. Macrophages are critical in regulating the adaptive immune response and play a key role in neutralizing infection. Macrophages exhibit a variety of phenotypes which have different energy requirements. In the case of HSV-1 infection the virus has been shown to alter metabolic processes of its host. Utilizing a XF24 Extracellular Flux Analyzer the metabolic activity of M0, M1, and M2 (IL-4, IL-13, and IL-10) RAW 264.7 macrophages was quantified for both uninfected cells and in response to HSV-1 infection. The analysis showed uninfected M0 and M2 (IL-4, IL-13, IL-10) macrophages undergo glycolysis and mitochondrial respiration for energy metabolism while M1 macrophages only undergo glycolysis. HSV-1 showed the ability to alter metabolism in macrophages by inhibiting oxidative phosphorylation. This inhibition leads to increased rates of glycolysis with variability shown among the macrophage phenotypes. As HSV-1 is dependent upon its host cell for energy production the degree of response can be correlated to viral replication.

Page Count


Department or Program

Microbiology and Immunology

Year Degree Awarded