Publication Date


Document Type


Committee Members

Scott Fraser (Committee Member), Steven Kniffley Jr. (Committee Chair), Chris Modica (Committee Member)

Degree Name

Doctor of Psychology (PsyD)


Previous research on gender conflict and strain quantitatively measured traditional masculinity ideology from western societal norms. The current study added to the previous research and qualitatively studied masculinity performance in men from different cultures: Black, Asian, Latino. Results from this study added to masculinity research due to the mixed method approach of both quantitative and qualitative research in males from diverse groups. Information gained from this study enabled masculinity to be operationally defined by different cultural focus groups and compared in order to explore distinct masculinity expression. Information was gained by measuring traditional masculinity ideology quantitatively on the Male Role Norms Inventory-Short Form (MRNI-SF). In addition, the males participated in separate focus groups to provide narratives of their masculinity performance beyond their traditional masculine ideology measured on the MRNI-SF. The current study showed that traditional masculine gender ideology was similar within all males, but how they expressed their masculine ideology appeared different in the Black, Asian, and Latino focus groups. Information from the current study will add to the masculinity research and increase understanding on the complexity of masculinity expression due to the integration of multiple cultural variables. Such knowledge will also enhance the cultural competence of providers and improve mental health resources for diverse men.

Page Count


Department or Program

School of Professional Psychology

Year Degree Awarded


Included in

Psychology Commons