Publication Date


Document Type


Committee Members

Herbert Colle (Committee Member), Valerie Shalin (Committee Chair), Scott Watamaniuk (Committee Member)

Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)


The following study examines the relationship between amount of information, performance, expertise, and temporal awareness during a high fidelity military battle command simulation. The current study provides an in situ example of temporal estimation which is lacking in the current body of research. Twenty Ohio National Guardsmen of varying expertise played the role of battle commander during the simulation. Novice behavior differed from experts. Novice indications of temporal awareness did not vary with contextual change. However, they provided non-detailed temporal utterances and a relationship between temporal awareness and performance. This pattern suggests that they were overwhelmed by the amount of information in the task. In contrast expert indications of temporal awareness displayed a v-shaped effect of contextual change. Unlike novices, experts did not provide a relationship between temporal awareness and performance. However, experts provided detailed temporal utterances. This pattern of performance suggests that experts were confident in their temporal awareness regardless of their level of performance. This substantiates the general importance of cognitive demand on temporal awareness, and a relationship between temporal awareness and change in the environment over time.

Page Count


Department or Program

Department of Psychology

Year Degree Awarded