Publication Date


Document Type


Committee Members

Eric Fossum (Committee Member), Daniel Ketcha (Committee Member), Kenneth Turnbull (Advisor)

Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)


Various 4-acyl-3-[2'-(carboalkoxy)phenyl]sydnones were synthesized by reaction of the parent sydnone with the corresponding anhydrides and Montmorillonite K-10. In the Q-tube, the acylation using acetic anhydride, which normally took 1.5 days for complete conversion thermally, was complete in 8.5 hours. Use of bismuth triflate as catalyst reduced the reaction time to 5 hours and, in the microwave, reactions were complete in 30 minutes and provided comparable yields. New sydnones were synthesized with acetic, propionic, butyric, and isobutyric anhydrides. Extension to various homogeneous metal triflates (lanthanum, yttrium, scandium, hafnium, gadolinium, and indium) was explored. Reactions were performed with 3-phenylsydnone as reactant, initially under thermal conditions overnight, individually with the six chosen catalysts. When optimal conditions were achieved, these predetermined parameters were employed for further optimization, performed under microwave irradiation. After multiple reactions, the best catalysts were determined to be the gadolinium and indium triflates.

Page Count


Department or Program

Department of Chemistry

Year Degree Awarded


Included in

Chemistry Commons