Publication Date


Document Type


Committee Members

Yanfang Chen (Advisor), David R. Cool (Committee Member), Richard Simman (Committee Member)

Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)


Angiotensin II (Ang II) induces endothelial dysfunction and is implicated in the pathogenesis of vascular diseases. Angiotensin 1-7 (Ang 1-7) has been reported to counteract many deleterious effects of Ang II. Endothelial microvesicles (EMVs) are small membrane vesicles released from endothelial cells (ECs) undergoing stress and apoptosis. But their functions are largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the effects of Ang 1-7 and EMVs on apoptosis and dysfunction of human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HbmECs). Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) production, and Nox2, p-Akt/Akt, p-eNOS/eNOS expression were analyzed. We found that Ang II dose-dependently induced HbmEC apoptosis and that both Ang 1-7 and EMVs can counteract the effects of Ang II. Their protective effects were associated with ROS/NO production which were linked to Nox2, and Akt /eNOS pathways. Our data suggests that both Ang 1-7 and EMVs protect endothelial dysfunction and apoptosis induced by Ang II in HbmECs.

Page Count


Department or Program

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology

Year Degree Awarded