Panic Disorder: The Ultimate Anxiety
Panic disorder, an intense exacerbation of anxiety accompanied by a variety of physical symptoms, is twice as common among women as among men. Onset is bimodal (teens/20s and mid-30s/40s), 50% of cases are accompanied by agoraphobia, and the etiology is probably multifactorial. Treatment in the primary care setting includes pharmacologic (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors) and cognitive-behavioral intervention. Medication is initiated at low doses, and the drug-evaluation trial is of 6 weeks duration. Psychiatric referral is helpful in nonresponders and in those with comorbid psychiatric conditions. Outcome varies, with most patients experiencing relief with treatment. For some people, however, the disorder is chronic, with ongoing exacerbations and remissions.
& Righter, E.
(1998). Panic Disorder: The Ultimate Anxiety. Journal of Women's Health, 7 (8), 983-989.