Additive Manufacturing (AM) provides a way to create parts that would be extremely difficult or impossible with conventional manufacturing processes. However, AM also introduces defects, which are detrimental to the mechanical performance. These defects are potentially unknown until post-processing inspection and testing, wasting time and resources on an unusable part or initiating unexpected failure. Historically, spectroscopy has successfully been used for in situ monitoring of laser welding, using changing parameters in the generated plume to predict defects. In situ monitoring using a visible spectrometer for fabrication of Alloy 718 on a test bed laser powder bed fusion system is performed. AM defects, such as keyhole porosity and unfused powder, are detected in the sensor output and a physics-based modeling approach is used to predict defect occurrence. Spectroscopy can provide near real-time monitoring, allowing defects to be predicted, and potentially corrected before the completion of the part, saving time and resources.
Drieling, A. (2018). In Situ Defect Detection Using Three Color Spectroscopy in Laser Powder Bed Additive Manufacturing. Wright State University, Dayton, Ohio.