Twenty-four certified flight instructors participated in an experiment designed to examine the viability of three Integrated Hazard Display (IHD) formats representative of Synthetic Vision System (SVS) technology (2D coplanar, 3D exocentric, split-screen; Wickens, 2003) in supporting flightpath tracking and situation awareness (SA). SA was probed through the use of two techniques, a memory-based technique called SAGAT and a variant of a perception-based technique called SPAM. Overall, the 3D exocentric display appeared to be the worst display format in terms of supporting SA and utilizing visual attention for the betterment of performance. There was an apparent speed-accuracy tradeoff between the memory-based (display blank) and perception-based (display present) conditions such that pilots took longer to make their traffic position estimations when the display was present, but those judgments were made with greater accuracy compared to when the display was removed. The perceptionbased measurement technique appeared to be the most sensitive to display differences in supporting SA.
Alexander, A. L.,
& Wickens, C. D.
(2005). Synthetic Vision Systems: Flightpath Tracking, Situation Awareness, and Visual Scanning in an Integrated Hazard Display. 2005 International Symposium on Aviation Psychology, 1-6.