Document Type


Publication Date





With the presence of a CDTI that provides graphical airspace information, pilots can use a variety of conflict resolution maneuvers in response to how they perceive the configuration of the conflict. However, across previous studies on conflict resolution using CDTIs, there has been little apparent consistency in maneuver safety, flight axis preferences (lateral or vertical), or turning direction within a flight axis. These inconsistencies may be due to a limited range of conflict geometries and/or display frames of reference. This article describes a study that incorporates three displays with different frames of reference and a wide range of conflict geometries to determine their specific effects on maneuver preferences. Results indicated that the designs of the two 3-D displays, which included features to reduce spatial ambiguities, produced performance levels nearly equivalent to the 2-D coplanar display in almost all conflict geometry conditions. Overall, display dimensionality had no effect on success or response times and only a limited effect on direction preference within the lateral axis. Conflict geometry, especially lateral approach angle, affected success, response times, and preferences for maneuvering along different flight axes.