The “See and Avoid” concept is crucial to visual meteorological condition (VMC) operations. The FAA and other organizations prescribe a specific systematic out the window (OTW) visual scanning pattern to avoid traffic conflicts, however little research has been published on what scanning patterns pilots actually use and how effective their scanning is. In our study, commercial pilots flew VFR scenarios in a general aviation flight training device (GAFTD) equipped with head and eye tracking equipment. We developed new algorithms to analyze the effectiveness and patterns of visual scanning. The scanning patterns used by the participant pilots did not resemble the prescribed patterns.
& Dismukes, R. K.
(2005). Is Pilots’ Visual Scanning Adequate to Avoid Mid-Air Collisions?. 2005 International Symposium on Aviation Psychology, 141-146.