Eighteen pilot participants with varying experience levels flew 36 approaches in a medium fidelity cockpit simulator. Eighteen baseline trials were flown with a standard Precision Approach Path Indicator (PAPI) and 18 trials were flown with the proposed Flashing PAPI (FPAPI). The results showed a significant increase in lateral tracking error with the FPAPI as compared to the PAPI trials, but no increase in vertical tracking errors. There was also a trend toward an increase in the number of radio communications with the FPAPI. Pilots were able to determine runway occupancy status and land or go-around as required in both the baseline and FPAPI trials.
(2005). Effects of a Final Approach Runway Occupancy Signal (FAROS) on Pilots’ Flight Path Tracking, Traffic Detection, and Air Traffic Control Communications. 2005 International Symposium on Aviation Psychology, 293-298.