This database analysis was conducted to determine which factors, or combination of factors, play a part in creating an unwanted outcome due to surprising or unexpected events encountered by pilots. The purpose of this study was to identify likely precursors to perceived surprising and unexpected events and, to advance our understanding of the overt behaviors and misbehaviors found in response to these events. This study also sought to determine if there were any significant differences between commercial air carrier and general aviation flight operations in regard to surprising and unexpected events. The results of this study indicated that the involvement of surprise or unexpectedness can indeed have a detrimental effect on the outcome of the flight. We also found indicators of the processes and mechanisms leading from surprise to an unwanted outcome.
& Jentsch, F.
(2005). Surprise and Unexpectedness in Flying: Factors and Features. 2005 International Symposium on Aviation Psychology, 398-403.