Each year the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) builds approximately seven air traffic control towers in the national airspace system. Each airport has unique surface and airspace characteristics, but all airports must determine the location and height of the new air traffic control tower (ATCT). These two factors impact cost and safety; therefore the FAA must develop a quantitative means in measuring what improvement in ATCT visibility can be gained by increasing tower height at different locations on the airport surface. Two metrics were developed (Object Discrimination, Line of Sight Angle of Incidence) to assess the impact of tower height on distance perception. The two metrics are robust and easy to use to assess the impact of tower height on air traffic control tower specialist distance perception.
Krebs, W. K.,
Murrill, S. R.,
& Driggers, R. G.
(2005). How High Is High Enough? Quantifying the Impact of Air Traffic Control Tower Observation Height on Distance Perception. 2005 International Symposium on Aviation Psychology, 414-418.