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This research applies Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS; Wiegmann & Shappell, 2003) analyzing aviation accidents in the R.O.C. Air Force between 1978 and 2002 in order to identify the training needs of aeronautical decision-making (ADM). There were 523 accidents associated with 1762 human errors. The results indicated that decision errors had been involved in 223 (42.6%) accidents. Without in-depth analysis of decision errors in military aviation, it is unlikely to identify precisely the training needs of ADM and the nature of the training content required to prevent the decision errors in aviation (Patrick, 2003). This research found that ‘decision-errors’ has significant association with lieutenant pilots and at landing phase, and pilots at the rank of ‘cadet’ (experience) flying ‘training aircraft’ (tools) practicing ‘close pattern’ (missions) at ‘landing phase’ (working environment) with the highest probability of accidents. It is important to understanding the junior pilots were very vulnerable to the decisions and supervisions made by high-level management. As Dekker (2001) described that human errors is systemically connected to the tools, tasks, and operational and organizational environment of operators, it is important to clarify the role of decision errors in pilot’s tools, tasks, experience, and operating environment in military aviation in order to develop effective ADM training programs for military pilots.