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The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) partners with the National Astronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to manage and integrate research on enhanced air- and ground-based air traffic management technologies. This partnership, designed to integrate air traffic decision support tools, concepts, and procedures, was formalized in September 1995. Coordinated research initiatives are described in joint research project descriptions (JRPDs) that define objectives, approach, responsibilities, mission relevance, goals, and outcomes. JRPD 12 is unique in that, as a cross-cutting JRPD, it ensures relevant human factors research issues, methods, metrics, and findings of individual programs of both organizations are made known to, shared, and leveraged by the larger research community including FAA, NASA, aviation industry and academia. Now, FAA is challenged as never before to integrate research and development (R&D) capabilities into the National Airspace System. The lessons and challenges identified by this group are summarized and presented as recommendations for establishing an integrated and focused human factors R&D program.