In teaching a series of classes that analyzed “classical” airline accidents, it was observed that human behavior in such accidents was often understood better when the “mindset” of the protagonists was studied explicitly, rather than implicitly, and that the time element was also useful in such analyses. Often pilots took actions not explainable by traditional error models, and not predictable from known influences. These observations started a series of iterations that eventually converged on the PEEMBO model (Predispositions, Environment, Events, Mindset and mental condition, Behaviors, and missed Opportunities.) The PEEMBO model now appears mature enough for routine use in accident and other analyses, and presents insights not obvious in SHEL, Reason’s, and derivative models.
(2005). Why’d They Do That? Analyzing Pilot Mindset in Accidents and Incidents. 2005 International Symposium on Aviation Psychology, 842-847.