Document Type


Publication Date





Despite the decade-long focus on pilot understanding of automated systems, knowledge gaps continue to suggest that current training programs are incomplete. There are several different types of knowledge that contribute to an effective understanding of automated systems, including more complex knowledge structures. This suggests that simply training pilots how to operate automated systems will not provide optimal performance. This paper describes an empirical investigation of the importance and measurement of different types of knowledge important for effective automation use. Twenty trained commercial pilots completed several knowledge assessments of automation and airmanship and responded to situational vignettes that assessed their proficiency in automation use. Results indicated that, in addition to paper-and-pencil measures of basic airmanship, measures of structural knowledge of automation (in the form of concept maps) accounted for large and significant amounts of variance in the pilots’ proficiency of automation use.