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The objective of this research was to analyze the human factors, which involved in specific types of miscommunication between pilots and air traffic controllers (ATCs). The study was based on the transcripts of pilot and ATC communication, which including the thirty flight incidents filed by local ATC authority. The research team consisted of an experienced air traffic controller, a pilot, and professors of linguistics, transportation management, human factors, and several assistants. The cases were analyzed and discussed thoroughly; as a result, seventeen types of communication error were identified from these incidents. Among these communication errors, three of seventeen types were solely associated with ATCs: 1) forgetting the previously issued clearance, 2) incomplete clearance or information, 3) and the unconformity of issuing the clearance/instruction. Two types of communication errors, i.e., inappropriate operation and violation against the rules, only associated with pilots. The other twelve error types were found in both parties. In general, the most frequent error type was “incomplete call sign” (61.3%), followed by “incomplete clearance or information” (12.5%) and “syntax errors” (11.4%).