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Safety research during the past decade has increasingly emphasized the importance of understanding both positive and negative aspects of performance, rather than errors, risks, and accidents alone. As the aviation industry already enjoys such a low accident rate, safety managers are looking for predictive approaches in order to proactively monitor system behaviour. Expectations of the scope and complexity of models has also increased, trying to keep pace with the rapid evolution of the industry, and a systems view has now become the aspiration. A riskmanagement approach called the Safety Model Based Analysis (SaMBA) developed by Dédale attempts to meet these modern objectives. This paper describes and discusses the various challenges Dédale encountered during two attempts to apply SaMBA2 at different organizations, only one of which was successful. The factors were manifold, among them certain challenges specific to safety interventions which raise questions about the industry’s capacity for safety innovation.