General aviation accounted for 74 percent of runway incursions but only 57 percent of the operations during the fouryear period from fiscal year (FY) 2001 through FY2004. Elements of the NASA Runway Incursion Prevention System were adapted and tested for general aviation aircraft. Sixteen General Aviation pilots, of varying levels of certification and amount of experience, participated in a piloted simulation study to evaluate the system for prevention of general aviation runway incursions compared to existing moving map displays. Pilots flew numerous complex, high workload approaches under varying weather and visibility conditions. A rare-event runway incursion scenario was presented, unbeknownst to the pilots, which represented a typical runway incursion situation. The results validated the efficacy and safety need for a runway incursion prevention system for general aviation aircraft.
Prinzel, L. J.,
& Jones, D. R.
(2007). Cockpit Technology for the Prevention of General Aviation Runway Incursions. 2007 International Symposium on Aviation Psychology, 546-551.