In a Phase I Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) project for NASA Langley, we developed and evaluated three formats of conceptual prototype cockpit wake vortex displays, a 2D plan view display, a 2D co-planar display, and a 3D synthetic vision system display. In each, the wake was presented along with conventional information on the 2D nav display, the vertical situation display, and the forward-looking SVS display. In the first stage of evaluation, three pilots carried out a two rounds of usability analyses on the displays in dynamic flight scenarios. The co-planar display was revealed to have the fewest problems. In the second stage, we evaluated the three displays, and some variants using a dynamic computational model of attention-situation awareness (A-SA), to reveal that the SVS display with wake information redundantly presented on a coplanar display yielded highest situation awareness and shortest noticing time for the appearance of the wake. The 2D nav display was poorest.
Wickens, C. D.,
& Kamienski, J.
(2007). Wake Vortex Display Design and Model Evaluation. 2007 International Symposium on Aviation Psychology, 743-747.