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For evaluations higher level safety in aviation, it is required to reduce accidents involving human errors. Actualizing appropriate Human-Machine Interface (HMI) design is recognized as a key issue for preventing significant hazards resulted from human errors. The present study has proposed a human-machine system simulation called Pilot Cognitive Simulator (PCS) as an evaluation method for HMI. The PCS aims at qualitative evaluations of HMI design from the aspect of information contents thorough analysis of the interaction between pilots’ cognitive process and HMI in a simulation environment. In an experimental simulation-based evaluation of a prototype supporting display, the PCS could successfully reveal the effectiveness and the possible adverse effect of the display. These results are considered to demonstrate the basic effectiveness of PCS as a supporting tool for achieving more reliable HMI design.