The model of anticipatory behavior control of Hoffmann (2003) is a current concept to describe the central role of anticipatory processes. It extends and changes the focus of the situation awareness concept to describe spatial disorientation. Two simulator studies have been conducted including the exercise black hole approach – a difficult landing procedure at night – with different samples of pilots. Pilots were grouped according to their flight performance in this profile (crash, problems, landing). Results of the heart rate show a significant interaction between the recording sections within the approach and the performance group. Already some miles before the crash point, the increase of heart rate is stronger for pilots who crash-landed. These results indicate that crashed pilots exhibit higher stress levels at the beginning of the landing procedure. This is interpreted as a reflection of subconscious anticipatory processes. Increased awareness about their state should have allowed at least a touch and go maneuver or the decision of flying a go-around.
Kallus, K. W.,
& Tropper, K.
(2007). Anticipatory Processes in Critical Flight Situations. 2007 International Symposium on Aviation Psychology, 309-314.