In a dual task context, pilots monitored a simulated cockpit display of traffic information (CDTI) supported by an imperfect auditory or visual alerting system. Across four experiments: (1) varying the alerting threshold, to reduce the false alarm rate (but increase the miss rate) degraded both the concurrent flight control task, and conflict detection accuracy, with only a slight improvement in detection speed. (2) Changing the dual task context from flight control, to ATC communications greatly degraded performance on both the concurrent task and the conflict detection task, revealing the high cognitive demands of traffic monitoring. (3) Changing ATC communications to a visual data link display greatly improved dual task performance. (4) Auditory conflict alerts were generally more effective than visual, but sometimes degraded the concurrent task more than visual.
& Colcombe, A.
(2007). Effects of CDTI Alerting System Properties on Pilot Multi-Task Performance. 2007 International Symposium on Aviation Psychology, 739-742.