The present study was an initial attempt to characterize team performance, workload, and situational awareness associated with two types of UCAV control schemes coupled with several collaboration technologies. Six people participated in a simulated suppression of enemy air defense (SEAD) mission, which required cooperation between all participants in order to meet mission objectives. UCAVs were controlled by UCAV operators and supervised by air battle managers (ABMs) or controlled directly by ABMs. Participants could communicate verbally, through instant messages, and on some trials, using a virtual whiteboard. Results of the experiment indicated that team performance was negatively impacted by direct UCAV control and communication using the virtual whiteboard. Overall, these results suggest that direct UCAV control may have subtle, yet substantial, negative impact on several aspects of team performance and that efficient use of collaboration technologies in temporally demanding environments may require operators to first develop effective communication strategies.
Funke, G. J.,
Bennett, A. M.,
Nelson, W. T.,
& Galster, S. M.
(2007). Collaboration Technologies and the Supervisory Control of UCAVS in Tactical C2: Effects on Performance and Workload. 2007 International Symposium on Aviation Psychology, 216-223.