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The current experiment used a high-fidelity, human-in-the-loop simulation to compare the Tower Operations Digital Data System (TODDS) to paper Flight Progress Strips (FPSs) during zerovisibility Airport Traffic Control Tower operations. Sixteen current controllers participated in groups of two. Each group received touchscreen and TODDS training before completing eight practice and eight test scenarios. The participants worked at both the ground and local control positions under four experimental conditions. The participants used one of four systems – the Integrated TODDS, FPSs with Airport Surface Detection Equipment – Model X, Perceptual- Spatial TODDS, or FPSs only – to control airport traffic. The participants had a Standard Terminal Automation Radar System display in all conditions, but did not have an out-the-window view. Dependent measures included the number and duration of airport operations, the number and duration of communications, TODDS usability, and participant opinion. We found advantages for surface surveillance and TODDS, and Integrated TODDS provided additional benefits.