Previous research has identified many factors that affect human dependence on automated systems. Some of these factors include automation reliability, types of errors, and training. This study introduces a new factor, time pressure, which is directly related to operator dependence on automated aids. Participants were asked to perform a simulated UAV target-detection task with the aid of diagnostic automation. Two factors were manipulated in this study: reliability of the automation and time pressure. The results indicate that participants faced with time pressure were more likely to depend on the automation than participants who had more time to evaluate the recommendations. The subsequent increase in dependence due to time pressure was beneficial to overall performance when the automation was highly reliable. In conditions with low reliability, overall human-automation performance suffered due to time pressure. The results imply a potential technique for eradicating the problem of under-dependence on highly reliable automated systems.
& Trafimow, D.
(2009). Automation Dependency Under Time Pressure. 2009 International Symposium on Aviation Psychology, 611-616.