To accomplish air traffic growth in a safe and efficient way, future air traffic management concepts require aircraft to accurately plan and execute 4D trajectories. A trajectory planned prior to takeoff, may, however, require in-flight revision. To support the flight crew in their task of accurately replanning a flight plan up to a meter fix, in four dimensions, a dedicated planning interface has been designed. The interface allows direct manipulation of the ground track and the descent profile. Constraints on trajectory planning are mapped onto candidate waypoint locations, highlighting the possibilities for acceptable ground track geometry in the horizontal situation display. In the vertical situation display, these constraints are mapped onto candidate top and bottom of descent locations. It is hypothesized that the designed interface enables pilots to efficiently plan suitable 4D trajectories, while allowing for adaptive behavior and supporting situation awareness, even under high workload conditions.
van Marwijk, B. J.,
van Paassen, M.,
& Borst, C.
(2009). A Human-Machine Interface for Replanning of 4D Trajectories. 2009 International Symposium on Aviation Psychology, 160-165.