A concept for a four-dimensional planning interface is proposed, designed to assist pilots with the transition from unmanaged to managed airspace. The interface concept visualizes constraints on aircraft trajectory, that result from future separation and timing requirements, and facilitates direct manipulation of waypoints, speed profiles and altitude profiles. A preliminary evaluation of the concept showed that subjects were able to replan their 4D trajectory successfully in 71 out of 72 scenarios. Recommendations for future research are the addition of separation affordance overlays to the vertical and speed profiles, and adding timing affordance overlays in all profiles.
in ‘t Veld, A. C.,
van Paassen, M.,
& Mulder, M.
(2011). Assisting Pilots in the Transition from Self-Separated to Controlled Airspace. 16th International Symposium on Aviation Psychology, 275-280.