Document Type


Publication Date





This paper presents the results of a human in the loop simulation that evaluated the display of runway safety relevant traffic and runway indications and alerts on a cockpit display of traffic information (CDTI). The simulation investigated differences between directive versus nondirective alert types and between an airport map with and without taxiway information. 24 pilots evaluated the CDTI in 18 airport surface scenarios that contained conflict opportunities. Findings indicate that with directive alerts, pilots avoided all conflict opportunities, while with nondirective alerts 90 % of conflicts were avoided. Response to directive alerts was generally faster than to non-directive alerts. Limitations for non-directive alerts became apparent in scenarios where pilots had to respond under time pressure. While pilots preferred taxiway information to be displayed on the CDTI, no performance differences were found compared to CDTI’s with taxiway information. The paper concludes with implications for the development of avionics standards.