Airport surface delays can impact airport surface congestion, operational costs, environmental emissions, and passenger satisfaction. We report on structured interviews and observational studies at two US airports with different approaches to managing surface delays. Each approach requires human judgment to set and adapt control parameters to manage departure flows. We contrast these approaches in terms of: 1) distribution of roles and responsibilities; 2) human judgments required; 3) enforcement of flight operator compliance; and 4) tools for coordination and decision support. Guidance is provided for designing and implementing human-centered surface management programs based on an analysis of these approaches.
Fernandes, A. B.,
& Smith, P. J.
(2011). Human-Centered Design to Support Flexibility and Adaptability in Airport Surface Management. 16th International Symposium on Aviation Psychology, 106-111.