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Many Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) Operational Improvements (OIs) aim to provide controllers with decision support tools and other automation specifically designed to provide safety enhancements to National Airspace System (NAS) operations. While these changes may indeed produce positive safety improvements, the introduction of each new system and capability also offers the possibility of introducing new human performance hazards into the NAS. A thorough review of the proposed NextGen midterm OIs was completed to identify the potential for both the positive and negative impacts on the human contribution to risk in the NAS. A summary of these findings was presented by linking the proactive human performance assessment with the Federal Aviation Administration’s (FAA) top five hazards in the NAS for fiscal year 2013. The results showed that while some of the human performance hazards present in current operations were reduced or eliminated, many new human performance hazards could also be introduced as these systems are implemented.