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The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of task complexity (TC) and time pressure (TP) on air traffic controller’s (ATC) performance and mental workload. Sixteen students enrolled in an aviation college completed four scenarios which were a subset of the ATCPrep software for the AT-SAT. Fifteen performance variables were measured (e.g., conflict resolution). Additionally, NASA-TLX was used to test participants’ mental workload. As expected, for most of the performance variables, high TC andhigh TP resulted in the lowest participant performance. For the three performance variables, TP had a differential effect on TC. Participants experienced the greatest mental workload when TC and TP were the highest. Although higher TC and higher TP was shown to have the greatest impact on performance variables, participants seemed to handle TC better than TP in several situations. When developing new technology, greater consideration should be given to TC rather than TP.