In tele-operating an UAV, human operators fully rely on cameras to control thevehicle from a distance. To increase operator situation awareness and reduce workload, haptic feedback on the control stick has been developed which acts as an automatic collision avoidance system. A virtual force field surrounding the moving vehicle interacts with obstacles surrounding it,yielding repulsive forces on the stick that leadthe vehicle away from them. Albeit successful in significantly reducing the number of collisions,thehaptic interfacereceivedlow user acceptance ratings.Operators do not always fully understand the collision avoidance automation intentions, and they experience the haptic forces as intrusive. This paper discusses thedevelopment and testing of several visualizations of the underlying automation intentions, primarily the artificial force field. Results of ahuman-in-the-loop experiment show that these visualizations indeed led to higher user acceptance ratings, without affectingthe operator’s safety, performance and workload.
van Paassen, R.,
& Mulder, M.
(2017). Increasing Acceptance of Haptic Feedback in UAV Teleoperations by Visualizing Force Fields. 19th International Symposium on Aviation Psychology, 311-316.