A State Safety Program (SSP) and a Safety Management System (SMS) are both part of the Standards and Recommended Practices (SARPs) promoted by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) to support international safety in air navigation, flight inspections, air accident investigations, training, certification, and related areas. This paper discusses roles and responsibilities of the regulator and service provider focusing on human performance in oversight versus operations. Clarification is intended to help both regulators and operators focus on executing their separate and distinct roles and responsibilities for oversight versus operations. Left unaddressed, role confusion between the organizations can result in safety programs with potentially hazardous gaps, ineffective mitigations or inefficient overlaps. The US SSP is used to illustrate with examples of how these programs can impact human performance.
& Krois, P.
(2021). Safety Programs, Safety Management Systems and Implications for Human Performance. 77th International Symposium on Aviation Psychology, 202-207.