The livestock sector plays fundamental role in Pakistan's economy, and a variety of ruminants (cattle and buffaloes) are raised to meet the rising demand for milk, meat, and hide goods. Ticks are the most common vectors for the transmission of tick-borne disease and several pathogens to animals and people. Ticks are widespread in Pakistan due to the country's favorable subtropical climate, and they parasitize large and small ruminants, causing infestation and mortality, as well as economic losses to herdsmen. Therefore, the study aimed to investigate the tick’s epidemiology in large animals in the selected Southern regions of Pakistan, during the year 2020-21, along with the identification of infesting ticks and their associated risk factors. For this purpose, a total of 2637 tick specimens were collected from 2813 animals and seven tick species belonging to five genera were identified from examined animals. The identified species were A. variegatum, D. marginatus, H. anatolicum, H. excavatum, H. dromedarii, Hae. punctata and R. sanguineus. D. marginatus was not found on buffaloes, while A. variegatum, Hae. punctata and H. excavatum were not recorded on cows. Age and sex of the animals were non-significantly (p > 0.05) associated with the prevalence of tick infestation. However, the females and younger animals were significantly (p ≤ 0.05) infested with ticks as compared to males and older animals. The most common sites of tick attachment were the tail and ear regions, while the thigh region was the least common. This study concluded that H. anatolicum is the most prevalent tick species found on both hosts (cows and buffaloes), which bear a major risk of protozoan transmission in the livestock population and may badly affect the health status and production of the animals.
Received: Nov 28, 2022; Accepted: Feb 05, 2023; Published: March 30, 2023
Rehman, A. U.,
& Jabeen, N.
Tick Infestation, Distribution, Identification, and Risk Factors on Large Ruminants in Southern Regions of Pakistan,
Journal of Bioresource Management, 10