Piroplasmosis (babesiosis and theileriosis) are the leading blood parasites responsible for significant economic losses to the dairy enterprises. These parasites are transmitted by Ixodid ticks from a diseased animal to a healthy animal. This study was executed to determine the prevalence of Theileria and Babesia in water buffaloes in District Dera Ismail Khan for their risk assessment. During this trial, 350 random blood samples were obtained from buffalos within the region of District Dera Ismail Khan and examined for Babesia and Theileria parasites using Giemsa staining technique under an oil immersion lens. Forty-eight blood samples were found positive and the prevalence of Babesiosis was 7.43 %, followed by the prevalence of Theileriosis (6.28 %). Babesiosis had a significantly higher (p < 0.05) prevalence among both males and females (6.9 % and 7.7 %, respectively) followed by Theileria (5.38 % and 6.8 %, respectively). The significantly highest (p < 0.05) prevalence of Theileria was seen in calves younger than 2 years (16.7 %). Babesiosis was most prevalent (p < 0.05) in calves aged 2 to 5 (11.7 %). The Kundhi buffalo breed had the highest (p < 0.05) prevalence of babesiosis, followed by the Nili Ravi breed, while, the Nili Ravi breed had the highest frequency (p < 0.05)of Theileria. Piroplasmosis prevalence significantly (p < 0.05) peaked in the summer season. Piroplasmosisis the major risk factor in endangering the general health of the buffalo’s population, therefore, stringent control measures are recommended for the management of the tick population.

Article History

Received: Dec 24, 2022; Accepted: Feb 19, 2023; Published: March 30, 2023