Despite the fact that fertilizers have been used for millennia for sustainable crop production, this high and considerable dependence on fertilizers heightens environmental concerns with the indirect human exposure due to accumulation of toxins in food chain via soil contamination. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the application of fertilizers to the soil and their effect on the accumulation of copper and nickel in spinach (Spinacia oleracea), garlic (Allium sativum), wheat (Triticum aestivum), maize (Zea mays), and barley (Hordeum vulgare); as well as potential health concerns associated with consuming vegetables cultivated on this contaminated land. Samples of available soil, food crops, and human blood were collected from three different Tehsils: Bhalwal, Sahiwal, and Silanwali and were regarded as site 1, site 2 and site 3 respectively. Urea, farmyard manure, and potassium chloride were delivered to Site 1; urea phosphate, manure, and ammonium sulphate were delivered to Site 2; and superphosphate, ammonium phosphate, and nitrate phosphate were delivered to Site 3. Data was subjected to statistical analysis for computing out ANOVA and correlation. Analysis revealed that minimum copper concentration was found in the soil of T. aestivum grown at Site-1 while the inhabitants of Site 3 had the highest concentration of Cu in their blood. The highest level of HIR was found in the human beings that ate the S. oleracea grown at Site 3. It is strongly advised that fertilizers be used sparingly, as their excessive use can cause human health risks.
Received: Sep 06, 2022; Accepted: Jan 18, 2023; Published: March 30, 2023
Khan, Z. I.,
Awan, M. F.,
& Bashir, A.
Effects of Fertilizers on Copper and Nickel Accumulation and Human Health Risk Assessment of Vegetables and Food Crops,
Journal of Bioresource Management, 10