This study evaluated the health risk of some heavy metals in Eme River, Umuahia. The study conducted in 6 stations was between December 2017 and November 2018. The non-carcinogenic method that involves determination of chronic daily intake (CDI), hazard quotient (HQ) and hazard index (HI) was applied in the assessment of ingestion, dermal and incidental ingestion exposures. Iron, lead and cadmium exceeded their limits and warranted risk assessment. The heavy metals’ CDI values for the three routes were lower than their respective reference doses except for cadmium (ingestion route). Except for cadmium (ingestion), the hazard quotients also recorded values lower than the threshold value (1). The hazard indices (HI) values for dermal and incidental ingestion were well below the threshold value (1) while all the HI values (ingestion) recorded among the adult and children in all the stations were higher than the threshold value (1) except for adult in stations 2 and 3. This assessment showed that the risk of consuming the water was high and may be detrimental to the consumers. The children swimming in the river and sand miners were not at risk based on the outcome of the dermal and incidental ingestion routes assessment. Elevated concentrations of cadmium, iron, and lead above acceptable limits were responsible for the outcome while cadmium was the main metal that contributed to the adverse health risk observed.

Article History

Received: Jan 08, 2023; Accepted: Mar 23, 2023; Published: Aug 24, 2023