The range grazing livestock (cattles and goats) are afflicted by a significant skin/hide issue known as warble fly larval infestation, which is caused by the larvae of Hypoderma lineatum and Hypoderma bovis species which resulted in substantial economic losses to the leather industries. The life cycle of hypodermosis is complex, involving both ecto- and endoparasitic stages. Female warble flies deposit their eggs in rows of 5-8 on individual hairs of the host, often targeting the legs but also other areas. These eggs are securely attached to the hairs and a single female fly may lay as many as 800 eggs on a host within a week, which is typically their lifespan. Egg hatching occurs 3-7 days after the eggs are laid. The larvae then move down under to the skin and actively penetrate it, causing great irritation for cattle and goats. Some tactics used to control warble flies on animals are chemical insecticides which are available in the form of sprays, pour-ons, and injections. These chemicals can kill or repel adult flies and prevent larvae from developing into mature flies. Predatory insects e.g., wasps can be used to control warble fly populations. Physical methods i.e., fly traps, fly swatters, and sticky tapes can be used to capture or kill adult flies. Practices such as maintaining clean living conditions, grazing management, and reducing animal stress can help prevent warble fly infestations. It is important to consult with a veterinarian to determine the best control method for incidences of warble fly infestation.

Article History

Received: April 21, 2023; Accepted: May 30, 2023; Published: Dec 26, 2023