Himalayan musk deer (Moschus chrysogaste leucogaster) is an IUCN Red List Endangered species that reaches its western range limit in Pakistan, although its distribution or population size is unknown. Here, we mapped its distribution, described habitat preferences, estimated population sizes, recruitment and mortality, and reported the market values of musk deer wildlife products. We used two approaches: analyzing local wisdom (traditional ecological knowledge) through the use of questionnaires, and conducting confirmatory field surveys of selected areas. Questionnaire respondents indicated musk deer sightings in 28 of 84 localities; mainly in Himalayan dry temperate forests with >20% forest cover. There were an estimated 224-363 individuals. When females were observed with offspring, there were often two fawns present, suggesting twinning. Hunting appears largely opportunistic, with approximately 20% of the population killed each year. Musk, skins and canine teeth are sold in markets. Future threats include future human population growth, growing awareness about musk deer product values and political instability.