The present study describes anthropogenic pressure in Tolipir landscape of lesser Himalayas. The GIS tools, questionnaire and field sampling surveys were used to estimate threats in landscape. The study was conducted from January 2013 to January 2014. The five model villages (Ali Sojal, Kanchi Kot, Khori Chana, Kahoo Kot and Noor Kot) of Tolipir landscape were selected to determine anthropogenic pressure. The study documents that Tolipir landscape has average number of house (350 ± 82.4), with number of individual per house (10.8 ± 1.1) and fuel consumption per day (43.72±3.30) kg. The preferred fuel wood plant species among inhabitants of landscape are; Quercus incana (41.2%), Quercus dilatata (41.2%), Pinus wallichiana (21.6%), Rubus fruticosus (14.3 %), Aesculus indica (13.3%), Salix acmophylla (12.3%), Dicliptera bupleuroides (10.2%), Robinia pseudoaccacia (7.8%), Machillus odoratissima (5.9%), Olea cuspidata (3.9%), Ailanthus altissima (2.0%,), Berberis lyceum (2.0%), Abies pindrow (2.0%), Machillus odoratissima (2.0%), Dodonia viscose (2.0%), Punica granatum (2.0%) and Melia azaderach (2.0%). The inhabitants of landscape has an average owned land area of 20.9 ± 4.1 kanal, with average livestock (6.1 ± 6.7) and resident feed livestock, by green fodder (61%), meadow (20.8%), forest (18.2%), cultivated fields (89.3%) and farm (8.3%). The results indicate Tolipir landscape has significant greater pressure in the form of fuel wood consumption, population, grazing when compared international standard of other hilly areas. The assessments of anthropogenic pressure provide baseline information in developing conservation strategies, for mountain ecosystems regionally and globally.




A co-author is removed from the manuscript upon request of the corresponding author.