Groundwater of Oum-El-Bouaghi and its surroundings hosts a variety of microflora and fauna. This study investigated the relationship between the effect of human activity and the biodiversity and distribution of aquatic fauna in two semi-arid regions Sighus region (Oum-El-Bouaghi) and El Rahmouni (Constantine) in north-eastern Algeria. Fourteen wells and six springs were studied in two hydrographic basins, that of Constantine and Seybouse Melegue. Significant differences were revealed between the wells and springs in the two watersheds, making it possible to distinguish four groups of wells and two groups of springs. The overall faunal richness of the stations appeared to be weakly correlated with water quality, but on the other hand, the specific richness of the stygoby fauna, and even more so the abundance of stygoby species, decreased when water quality deteriorated.